Battery cell to module / system manufacturing processes

by | Jul 5, 2023 | Extreme Lithium Battery Manufacturing | 0 comments

In this article, we will look at the following production parts:

Battery Module Production

Battery System / Pack Assembly

There are mostly up to seven processes in the battery module / system production part considering some common cell formats like cylindrical, prismatic, and pouch cells.

Process 1: Incoming cells inspection (any kind of cell format):

Often OEM’s for vehicle manufacturers and battery manufacturers purchase the cells from another battery supplier. In this case the first step for the cells will be over checks when they are delivered to the factory including unpacking process.

Pic credits: Jot Automation

Incoming battery cells undergo thorough incoming verification after unpacking.

-Cell quality inspection

-Electrical testing

-Dimensional & diameter verification

-Rust, contamination & defect validation

-Sorting based on the above tests the cells are sorted by binning into categories.

Pic credits: Jot Automation
Pic credits: Jot Automation

Process 2: Pre-assembly:

Cells surfaces are cleaned for i.e. by laser cleaning / ablation.

Depending on above medium there might be a need for extracting vapors.

The cells are then stacked.

Pic credits: Jot Automation

Process 3: Stacked cells tightening / loading with e.g. end plates:

End Plates or pressure plates are welded and cleaned with like plasma.

They are placed at opposite ends.

Then stacked cells are placed in the middle.

They are preloaded or tightened by force of clamping device or module body.

Supporting insulation plates are added.

The whole system can be put inside a module case.

Process 4: Connecting the cells inside the module

Current collectors or contact tabs are electrically wired together

The contacts are done by welding (Ultrasonic, Laser, Resistance Welding) or screwing

One conductivity measurement can be done by resistance measurements.

Mechanical strength can be assessed with a pull test then.

Optical inspection is used to measure welding seams.


-Module & submodule assembly

-Electrical testing

-Laser welding & marking

-End-of-line testing

-Cable assembly

-PWB assembly

Process 5: Mounting of the BMS cell sensing circuit (CSC)

BMS CSC is positioned on the specific position of the battery or unit.

Process 6: Cell stack is loaded into module housing

The module housing design can include the thermal management system or more often the modules are mounted onto larger cooling plates.

Process 7: EoL – End of Line Testing

The modules then will undergo quality control where depending on the manufacturer quality criteria various parameters are checked. Insulation, Optical Check, Slave BMS testing, leakage test for Module Housing, Connectivity Test, Connectors, Charge and Discharge Test, SOC, Thermal etc.


-Pack assembly

-Final product testing

-Dimensional and quality verification

-Material handling

JOT Automation is providing in all of these processes with its customized turnkey solutions products and combined with our partner’s network JOT is doing the whole integration to supply in a complete line concept out of one hand.

  • Battery Test solutions
  • Cell, module and pack level assembly & testing
  • Cell OQC and IQC testing
  • Cell surface quality optical inspection with deep-learning AI
  • Cell dimensional validation
  • Cell fail/pass sorting, grouping
  • High variety of electrical tests
  • Burr inspection
  • Laser welding
  • BMS ICT & Function testing
  • Material handling
  • Assembly
  • Bonding
  • And more …

High-speed manufacturing and test cycles supporting high-volume production requirements.

Advanced real-time statistics and analytics for production efficiency.

Battery Assembly solutions

Fully comprehensive solutions for automated battery module and pack assembly

Battery types supported: cylindrical, prismatic, pouch

Process phases supported: material handling, assembly, dispensing, welding

Advanced line safety solutions: temperature & gas monitoring, automatic fire extinguishing

Modular and scalable platforms for efficient customizability

End-of-line test solutions

JOT key features:

-Fully comprehensive solution for automated battery assembly: cylindrical, prismatic or pouch

-Modular and scalable design platforms

-Flexible customizability for multiple applications

-Options for material handling and testing, including assembly, welding and final-product testing

-Material input & feeding options, from euro pallets to bulk

-Built-in electrical testing

-Buffering capability

-Screw insertion

-Automatic fail sorting & buffer

-Laser welding, laser marking

-High-grade fire safety with temperature and gas sensors, automatic extinguishing


-Air leak testing

– and more…

Pic credits: Jot Automation

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